Arugula Salad with Parmesan

1/2 cup balsamic vinegar
2 teaspoons Dijon mustard
2 teaspoons sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt
Freshly ground black pepper
2 cloves garlic, peeled and smashed on a cutting board with the side of a knife, or more to taste
1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil
 8 cups fresh arugula, washed and dried
½ c.   Parmesan cheese

In a small bowl, whisk together the vinegar, mustard, sugar, salt, pepper, and garlic until the sugar and salt are dissolved. While continuing to whisk, add the olive oil in a thin, steady stream until emulsified. Taste and adjust the seasoning, if necessary. Place the arugula in a large salad bowl and toss with some of the vinaigrette. Divide the salad among serving plates and garnish with shaved Parmesan. Serve immediately.